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C语言树形打印二叉树

时间:2014-10-26 00:11:35      阅读:734      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

学习二叉树时,如果能直观显示,测试程序的时候会方便许多。

实现树形打印的标准方法是利用队列,此处参考的是CSDN上的一篇文章:树状显示二叉树, 原程序使用C++实现,这里使用C。

算法中使用了两个队列,一个用于存储树的结点,另一个用于存储打印过程中每个结点对应的信息。

上一篇文章写了可以利用 void 指针来实现模板,这一次嫌麻烦没有用这个方法,复制粘贴了两个队列。

改天试一试能不能把 void 指针的赋值抽象成一套函数来用用。

如同上面那篇文章中介绍的,此打印程序的核心思想是利用父结点的坐标 pos, 和每一层的偏移量 offset 计算左右子结点的位置。

左结点的坐标是 pos - offset, 右结点的坐标是 pos + offset.

实现代码如下:

 1 // content of "BST.h"
 2 #include<stdio.h>
 3 #include<stdlib.h>
 4 
 5 // definition of the Tree.
 6 
 7 struct Node {
 8     int key;
 9     struct Node *LeftChild;
10     struct Node *RightChild;
11 };
12 
13 typedef struct Node *Position;
14 typedef struct Node *SearchTree;
15 
16 int GetHeight(SearchTree T);
17 SearchTree Insert(SearchTree T, int data);
18 Position Find(SearchTree T, int data);
19 SearchTree Delete(SearchTree T, int data);
20 Position FindMin(SearchTree T);
21 
22 void Error1(char *s);
23 
24 // Definition of the Queue of Nodes.
25 
26 typedef Position ElementType;
27 
28 struct Q_Item {
29     ElementType data;
30     struct Q_Item *next;
31 };
32 
33 typedef struct Q_Item *PtrToItem;
34 
35 struct Qrec {
36     PtrToItem front, end;
37 };
38 
39 typedef struct Qrec *Queue;
40 
41 Queue CreateQ(void);
42 void InQ(Queue Q, ElementType data);
43 ElementType OutQ(Queue Q);
44 void Clear(Queue Q);
45 int IsEmpty(Queue Q);
46 int Power(int x, int n);
47 
48 // Definition of the Queue of the info needed in PrintDepth.
49 
50 struct infoNode {
51     int pos;
52     int space;
53     int level;
54     int newline;
55     struct infoNode *next;
56 };
57 
58 typedef struct infoNode *infoItem;
59 
60 struct infoQrec {
61     infoItem front, end;
62 };
63 
64 typedef struct infoQrec *infoQ;
65 
66 infoItem MakeItem(int pos, int space, int level, int newline);
67 infoQ CreateInfoQ(void);
68 void Pushback(infoQ Q, infoItem item);
69 infoItem PopFront(infoQ Q);
70 int InfoQEmpty(infoQ Q);
71 
72 // the final function is here
73 75 void PrintDepth_2(SearchTree T);

 

  1 #include"BST.h"
  2 #define TRUE 1
  3 #define FALSE 0
  4 
  5 // the Queue of TreeNodes.
  6 
  7 Queue CreateQ(void)
  8 {
  9     Queue Q = (Queue)malloc(sizeof(struct Qrec));
 10     if(!Q)
 11         Error1("out of space for Queue for TreeNode");
 12 
 13     Q->front = Q->end = NULL;
 14 
 15     return Q;
 16 }
 17 
 18 void InQ(Queue Q, ElementType data)
 19 {
 20     PtrToItem newNode = (PtrToItem)malloc(sizeof(ElementType));
 21     if(!newNode)
 22     {
 23         printf("no space for newNode\n");
 24         exit(1);
 25     }
 26 
 27     newNode->data = data;
 28     newNode->next = NULL;
 29 
 30     if(!Q->end)
 31         Q->front = Q->end = newNode;
 32     else
 33     {
 34         Q->end->next = newNode;
 35         Q->end = newNode;
 36     }
 37 }
 38 
 39 ElementType OutQ(Queue Q)
 40 {
 41     ElementType data;
 42     PtrToItem temp;
 43 
 44     if(!Q->front)
 45     {
 46         printf("the Queue is empty\n");
 47         exit(1);
 48     }
 49 
 50     temp = Q->front;
 51     data = temp->data;
 52 
 53     if(temp->next == NULL)
 54         Q->front = Q->end = NULL;
 55     else
 56         Q->front = temp->next;
 57 
 58     free(temp);
 59 
 60     return data;
 61 }
 62 
 63 void Clear(Queue Q)
 64 {
 65     PtrToItem curr, temp;
 66 
 67     curr = Q->front;
 68 
 69     while(curr)
 70     {
 71         temp = curr;
 72         curr = curr->next;
 73         free(temp);
 74     }
 75 
 76     free(Q);
 77 
 78 }
 79 
 80 int IsEmpty(Queue Q)
 81 {
 82     return Q->front == NULL;
 83 }
 84 
 85 int Power(int x, int n)
 86 {
 87     if(n == 0)
 88         return 1;
 89     else if( n % 2 )
 90         return Power(x*x, n/2) * x;
 91     else
 92         return Power(x*x, n/2);
 93 }
 94 
 95 // the Queue for printing information.
 96 
 97 infoItem MakeItem(int pos, int space, int level, int newline)
 98 {
 99     infoItem newItem = (infoItem)malloc(sizeof(struct infoNode));
100     if(!newItem)
101         Error1("out of space for infoNode");
102 
103     newItem->pos = pos;
104     newItem->space = space;
105     newItem->level = level;
106     newItem->newline = newline;
107     newItem->next = NULL;
108 
109     return newItem;
110 }
111 
112 infoQ CreateInfoQ(void)
113 {
114     infoQ Q = (infoQ)malloc(sizeof(struct infoQrec));
115     if(!Q)
116         Error1("out of space for infoQ");
117 
118     Q->front = Q->end = NULL;
119 
120     return Q;
121 }
122 
123 void Pushback(infoQ Q, infoItem item)
124 {
125     infoItem newItem = item;
126 
127     if(!Q->end)
128         Q->front = Q->end = newItem;
129     else
130     {
131         Q->end->next = newItem;
132         Q->end = newItem;
133     }
134 }
135 
136 infoItem PopFront(infoQ Q)
137 {
138     infoItem item;
139 
140     if(!Q->front)
141         Error1("the Queue is empty");
142 
143     item = Q->front;
144 
145     if(item->next == NULL)
146         Q->front = Q->end = NULL;
147     else
148         Q->front = item->next;
149 
150     return item;
151 }
152 
153 void ClearInfoQ(infoQ Q)
154 {
155     infoItem curr, temp;
156 
157     curr = Q->front;
158 
159     while(curr)
160     {
161         temp = curr;
162         curr = curr->next;
163         free(temp);
164     }
165 
166     free(Q);
167 
168 }
169 
170 int InfoQEmpty(infoQ Q)
171 {
172     return Q->front == NULL;
173 }
174 
175 
176 
177 // this function also print the NULL nodes,
178 // so the tree will look better and prettier,
179 // but also acquire a larger screen because
180 // this function divides the screen into
181 // many blocks, so the space here is consuming.
182 //
183 // |  |  |  |44|  |  |  |
184 // |  |29|  |  |  |66|  |
185 // |11|  |33|  |54|  |77|
186 //
187 // the key idea of this program is:
188 // while the node is not at the bottom,
189 // no matter if there is a node in the tree,
190 // we create a infoItem with the printing information,
191 // and push a NULL into the Queue.
192 // when we pop the elements out of the Queue,
193 // if the Node it contains is a NULL, we print some
194 // blank block, otherwise we print the key in the Node.
195 
196 
197 void PrintDepth(SearchTree T)
198 {
199     Position currNode;
200     Queue Q = CreateQ();
201     infoQ IQ = CreateInfoQ();
202     infoItem newInfo, currInfo, preInfo;
203     int height = GetHeight(T);
204     int ScreenWidth = Power(2, height+1);
205     int pos, level, space, newline;
206     int dataWidth = 1;    // dataWidth is the width of the block.
207     int i;
208 
209     InQ(Q, T);
210     level = 1;
211     pos = ScreenWidth >> level;
212     space = pos;
213     newline = TRUE;
214 
215     newInfo = MakeItem(pos, space, level, newline);
216     Pushback(IQ, newInfo);
217 
218     preInfo = newInfo;
219 
220     while(!IsEmpty(Q))
221     {
222         currNode = OutQ(Q);
223         currInfo = PopFront(IQ);
224 
225         if(currInfo->newline)
226             printf("\n");
227 
228         for(i=0; i<currInfo->space; i++)
229             printf(" ");            
230 
231         if(currNode)
232             printf("%d",currNode->key);
233         else
234             printf(" ");
235 
236         if(currInfo->level < height+1)   // if the node is not at the bottom,
237         {                    //  always create 2 child nodes.
238             level = currInfo->level + 1;
239             pos = currInfo->pos - (ScreenWidth >> level);  // the left child.
240             if(level > preInfo->level)
241             {
242                 newline = TRUE;
243                 space = pos;
244             }
245             else
246             {
247                 newline = FALSE;
248                 space = pos - preInfo->pos;
249             }
250 
251             space--;       // set aside space for the data to be printed.
252             newInfo = MakeItem(pos, space, level, newline);
253 
254             Pushback(IQ, newInfo);
255 
256             preInfo = newInfo;
257 
258             if(currNode)  // if there is a node in a tree, create the left child.
259             {
260                 if(currNode->LeftChild)
261                     InQ(Q, currNode->LeftChild);
262                 else
263                     InQ(Q, NULL);
264             }
265             else      // if there is a NULL, create the "left child" for NULL.
266                 InQ(Q, NULL);
267 
268             pos = currInfo->pos + (ScreenWidth >> level); // the right child.
269             newline = FALSE;
270             space = pos - preInfo->pos;
271             space--;
272 
273             newInfo = MakeItem(pos, space, level, newline);
274 
275             Pushback(IQ, newInfo);
276 
277             if(currNode)
278             {
279                 if(currNode->RightChild)
280                     InQ(Q, currNode->RightChild);
281                 else
282                     InQ(Q, NULL);
283             }
284             else
285                 InQ(Q, NULL);
286 
287             preInfo = newInfo;
288 
289         }
290 
291     }
292 
293     printf("\n\n");
294 }

 

C语言树形打印二叉树

原文:http://www.cnblogs.com/jeffo/p/print_binary_tree.html

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