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python之路《模块》

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1.time模块

FUNCTIONS

    asctime(...)

        asctime([tuple]) -> string

       

        Convert a time tuple to a string, e.g. ‘Sat Jun 06 16:26:11 1998‘.

        When the time tuple is not present, current time as returned by localtime()

        is used.

   

    clock(...)

        clock() -> floating point number

       

        Return the CPU time or real time since the start of the process or since

        the first call to clock().  This has as much precision as the system

        records.

   

    ctime(...)

        ctime(seconds) -> string

       

        Convert a time in seconds since the Epoch to a string in local time.

        This is equivalent to asctime(localtime(seconds)). When the time tuple is

        not present, current time as returned by localtime() is used.

   

    get_clock_info(...)

        get_clock_info(name: str) -> dict

       

        Get information of the specified clock.

   

    gmtime(...)

        gmtime([seconds]) -> (tm_year, tm_mon, tm_mday, tm_hour, tm_min,

                               tm_sec, tm_wday, tm_yday, tm_isdst)

       

        Convert seconds since the Epoch to a time tuple expressing UTC (a.k.a.

        GMT).  When ‘seconds‘ is not passed in, convert the current time instead.

       

        If the platform supports the tm_gmtoff and tm_zone, they are available as

        attributes only.

   

    localtime(...)

        localtime([seconds]) -> (tm_year,tm_mon,tm_mday,tm_hour,tm_min,

                                  tm_sec,tm_wday,tm_yday,tm_isdst)

       

        Convert seconds since the Epoch to a time tuple expressing local time.

        When ‘seconds‘ is not passed in, convert the current time instead.

   

    mktime(...)

        mktime(tuple) -> floating point number

       

        Convert a time tuple in local time to seconds since the Epoch.

        Note that mktime(gmtime(0)) will not generally return zero for most

        time zones; instead the returned value will either be equal to that

        of the timezone or altzone attributes on the time module.

   

    monotonic(...)

        monotonic() -> float

       

        Monotonic clock, cannot go backward.

   

    perf_counter(...)

        perf_counter() -> float

       

        Performance counter for benchmarking.

    

    process_time(...)

        process_time() -> float

       

        Process time for profiling: sum of the kernel and user-space CPU time.

   

    sleep(...)

        sleep(seconds)

       

        Delay execution for a given number of seconds.  The argument may be

        a floating point number for subsecond precision.

   

    strftime(...)

        strftime(format[, tuple]) -> string

       

        Convert a time tuple to a string according to a format specification.

        See the library reference manual for formatting codes. When the time tuple

        is not present, current time as returned by localtime() is used.

       

        Commonly used format codes:

       

        %Y  Year with century as a decimal number.

        %m  Month as a decimal number [01,12].

        %d  Day of the month as a decimal number [01,31].

        %H  Hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number [00,23].

        %M  Minute as a decimal number [00,59].

        %S  Second as a decimal number [00,61].

        %z  Time zone offset from UTC.

        %a  Locale‘s abbreviated weekday name.

        %A  Locale‘s full weekday name.

        %b  Locale‘s abbreviated month name.

        %B  Locale‘s full month name.

        %c  Locale‘s appropriate date and time representation.

        %I  Hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number [01,12].

        %p  Locale‘s equivalent of either AM or PM.

       

        Other codes may be available on your platform.  See documentation for

        the C library strftime function.

   

    strptime(...)

        strptime(string, format) -> struct_time

       

        Parse a string to a time tuple according to a format specification.

        See the library reference manual for formatting codes (same as

        strftime()).

       

        Commonly used format codes:

       

        %Y  Year with century as a decimal number.

        %m  Month as a decimal number [01,12].

        %d  Day of the month as a decimal number [01,31].

        %H  Hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number [00,23].

        %M  Minute as a decimal number [00,59].

        %S  Second as a decimal number [00,61].

        %z  Time zone offset from UTC.

        %a  Locale‘s abbreviated weekday name.

        %A  Locale‘s full weekday name.

        %b  Locale‘s abbreviated month name.

        %B  Locale‘s full month name.

        %c  Locale‘s appropriate date and time representation.

        %I  Hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number [01,12].

        %p  Locale‘s equivalent of either AM or PM.

       

        Other codes may be available on your platform.  See documentation for

        the C library strftime function.

   

    time(...)

        time() -> floating point number

       

        Return the current time in seconds since the Epoch.

        Fractions of a second may be present if the system clock provides them.

2.random

 详细信息

 1 help(random) 

我们先分析几个常见的

# 1.随机数0到1之间取
print(random.random())
# 2.随机整数
print(random.randint(0, 2))
# 3.随机整数左闭右开
print(random.randrange(0, 6))
# 随机选值  字符穿数组元组都行
print(random.choice(hello))
# 规定长度去浮点数
print(random.uniform(0, 9))
# 洗牌功能
name = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
random.shuffle(name)
print(name)

现在我将我们学的内容实现一个现实生活的问题

出现随机验证码

check_code = ‘‘
for i in range(0, 4):     
    temp = random.randrange(0, 4)   
    if i == temp:   
        code1 = random.randint(0, 9)   # 当i与temp相同时随机数在0到九之间
    else:
        code1 = chr(random.randint(97, 122))  # 否则就为字母
    check_code += str(code1)
print(check_code)

3.os模块

#OS模块
#os模块就是对操作系统进行操作,使用该模块必须先导入模块:
import os
#getcwd() 获取当前工作目录(当前工作目录默认都是当前文件所在的文件夹)
result = os.getcwd()
print(result)
#chdir()改变当前工作目录
os.chdir(‘/home/sy‘)
result = os.getcwd()
print(result)
open(‘02.txt‘,‘w‘)
#操作时如果书写完整的路径则不需要考虑默认工作目录的问题,按照实际书写路径操作
open(‘/home/sy/下载/02.txt‘,‘w‘)
#listdir() 获取指定文件夹中所有内容的名称列表
result = os.listdir(‘/home/sy‘)
print(result)
#mkdir()  创建文件夹
#os.mkdir(‘girls‘)
#os.mkdir(‘boys‘,0o777)
#makedirs()  递归创建文件夹
#os.makedirs(‘/home/sy/a/b/c/d‘)
#rmdir() 删除空目录
#os.rmdir(‘girls‘)
#removedirs 递归删除文件夹  必须都是空目录
#os.removedirs(‘/home/sy/a/b/c/d‘)
#rename() 文件或文件夹重命名
#os.rename(‘/home/sy/a‘,‘/home/sy/alibaba‘
#os.rename(‘02.txt‘,‘002.txt‘)
#stat() 获取文件或者文件夹的信息
#result = os.stat(‘/home/sy/PycharmProject/Python3/10.27/01.py)
#print(result)
#system() 执行系统命令(危险函数)
#result = os.system(‘ls -al‘)  #获取隐藏文件
#print(result)
#环境变量
‘‘‘
环境变量就是一些命令的集合
操作系统的环境变量就是操作系统在执行系统命令时搜索命令的目录的集合
‘‘‘
#getenv() 获取系统的环境变量
result = os.getenv(‘PATH‘)
print(result.split(‘:‘))
#putenv() 将一个目录添加到环境变量中(临时增加仅对当前脚本有效)
#os.putenv(‘PATH‘,‘/home/sy/下载‘)
#os.system(‘syls‘)
#exit() 退出终端的命令
#os模块中的常用值
#curdir  表示当前文件夹   .表示当前文件夹  一般情况下可以省略
print(os.curdir)
#pardir  表示上一层文件夹   ..表示上一层文件夹  不可省略!
print(os.pardir)
#os.mkdir(‘../../../man‘)#相对路径  从当前目录开始查找
#os.mkdir(‘/home/sy/man1‘)#绝对路径  从根目录开始查找
#name 获取代表操作系统的名称字符串
print(os.name) #posix -> linux或者unix系统  nt -> window系统
#sep 获取系统路径间隔符号  window ->\    linux ->/
print(os.sep)
#extsep 获取文件名称和后缀之间的间隔符号  window & linux -> .
print(os.extsep)
#linesep  获取操作系统的换行符号  window -> \r\n  linux/unix -> \n
print(repr(os.linesep))
 
#导入os模块
import os
#以下内容都是os.path子模块中的内容
#abspath()  将相对路径转化为绝对路径
path = ‘./boys‘#相对
result = os.path.abspath(path)
print(result)
#dirname()  获取完整路径当中的目录部分  &  basename()获取完整路径当中的主体部分
path = ‘/home/sy/boys‘
result = os.path.dirname(path)
print(result)
result = os.path.basename(path)
print(result)
#split() 将一个完整的路径切割成目录部分和主体部分
path = ‘/home/sy/boys‘
result = os.path.split(path)
print(result)
#join() 将2个路径合并成一个
var1 = ‘/home/sy‘
var2 = ‘000.py‘
result = os.path.join(var1,var2)
print(result)
#splitext() 将一个路径切割成文件后缀和其他两个部分,主要用于获取文件的后缀
path = ‘/home/sy/000.py‘
result = os.path.splitext(path)
print(result)
#getsize()  获取文件的大小
#path = ‘/home/sy/000.py‘
#result = os.path.getsize(path)
#print(result)
#isfile() 检测是否是文件
path = ‘/home/sy/000.py‘
result = os.path.isfile(path)
print(result)
#isdir()  检测是否是文件夹
result = os.path.isdir(path)
print(result)
#islink() 检测是否是链接
path = ‘/initrd.img.old‘
result = os.path.islink(path)
print(result)
#getctime() 获取文件的创建时间 get create time
#getmtime() 获取文件的修改时间 get modify time
#getatime() 获取文件的访问时间 get active time
import time
filepath = ‘/home/sy/下载/chls‘
result = os.path.getctime(filepath)
print(time.ctime(result))
result = os.path.getmtime(filepath)
print(time.ctime(result))
result = os.path.getatime(filepath)
print(time.ctime(result))
#exists() 检测某个路径是否真实存在
filepath = ‘/home/sy/下载/chls‘
result = os.path.exists(filepath)
print(result)
#isabs() 检测一个路径是否是绝对路径
path = ‘/boys‘
result = os.path.isabs(path)
print(result)
#samefile() 检测2个路径是否是同一个文件
path1 = ‘/home/sy/下载/001‘
path2 = ‘../../../下载/001‘
result = os.path.samefile(path1,path2)
print(result)

#os.environ 用于获取和设置系统环境变量的内置值
import os
#获取系统环境变量  getenv() 效果
print(os.environ[‘PATH‘])
#设置系统环境变量 putenv()
os.environ[‘PATH‘] += ‘:/home/sy/下载‘
os.system(‘chls‘)
 
 
 
 
4.sys模块
5.shutil 拷贝文件用的 压缩也可以

python之路《模块》

标签:hello   之路   from   详细信息   默认工作目录   fse   size   ria   fir   

原文:https://www.cnblogs.com/BookMiki/p/9697324.html

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